Bibliography of Subtitling and Related Subjects 

For a long time there was very little literature on subtitling. (Moreover, the words "Subtitles" and/or "Captions" are very rarely to be found in the indexes of handbooks or bibliographies on the cinema.) A few experienced subtitlers had written down their observations and thoughts or lectured on the subject, but on the whole, finding source material used to be an uphill struggle. 

Things have changed, however, since around 1993, and now there are quite a few books available and a multitude of academic papers on this subject, as well as on subjects related to media translation. Here I can mention only the most important. More complete bibliographies can be found in

Gambier, Yves (ed.) (1997), Language Transfer and Audiovisual Communication. A Bibliography, Centre for Translation and Interpretation, Univ. of Turku, Turku, 102 p. 

Gottlieb, Henrik (1997),Tekstningslitteraturen gennem 65 år, Center for Translation Studies and Lexicography, Dept. of English, Univ. of Copenhagen, 92 p. (A very comprehensive and well-structured bibliography on subtitling literature 1929-94 accompanying the author's thesis, below. An updated and even better version is published in Caimi (2002) below, as well as on the Internet at and

Nadiani, Giovanni & Heiss, Christine (1996), Repertorio bibliografico sulla traduzione multimediale per il cinema, la televisione e la scena (Bibliography of multimedia translation for cinema, TV and theater) in Heiss & Bosinelli (eds.) 1996, Traduzione multimediale per il cinema, la televisione e la scena. Atti del convegno internazionale, Forlì 26-28 ottobre 1995, Biblioteca della Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori Forlí, CLUEB, Bologna. pp. 417-482. Also available at: via Bibliographie. 

Perego, Elisa (2002), "Bibliografia ristretta a contributi sulla traduzione filmica dei sottotitoli" in RILA – Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Applicata, XXXIV:1-2, pp. 399-424. Also at

Sanderson, John D., (ed.) )2005), Research on Translation for Subtitling in Spain and Italy. Alicante: Universidad de Alicante,

Books and articles on screen translation, especially subtitling:



Araújo, Vera Lúcia Santiago (2000), Ser ou não ser natural; eis a questão dos clichês de emoção na tradução audiovisual (To be or not to be natural; the question of cliches of emotion in audiovisual translation), PhD thesis, Univ. de São Paulo, 271 p.

Armstrong, Stephen & Colm Caffrey & Marian Flanagan (2007), "Translating DVD subtitles from English-German and English-Japanese using Example-Based MachineTranslation", in Carroll & al,

Bergstrand, Ann (2004), Synchronisation und Untertitelung - Ein Vergleich der beiden Methoden. Eine Untersuchung des Films "Good Will Hunting", C-paper Linköpings universitet, 28 p.     

Bogucki, Lukasz (2004), "The Constraint of Relevance in Subtitling" in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 01, 2004, pp. 69-85. Available at

Bogucki, Lukasz (2004), A Relevance Framework for Constraints on Cinema
, thesis, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Lodzkiego, Lodz, 185 pp. 

Bollettieri Bosinelli, R.M., Heiss, C., Soffritti, M. & Bernardini, S., (eds.) (2000). La traduzione multimediale: quale testo per quale traduzione? Bologna: Clueb, 467 pp.


Boman, Evalotta (1997), Subtitling. A study of translational strategies, D-essay, Dept. of English, Univ. of Umeå, 28 p.

Brant, Rosemary (1984), The History and Practice of French Subtitling, MA Thesis, Univ. of Texas, Austin, 143 p. (Gives a good account of the subtitling of films in France, including its technical history. Can be found at


Bravo, J.M. (2004), “Conventional Subtitling, Screen Texts and Film Titles”, in Bravo, J.M. (ed.), A New Spectrum of Translation Studies. Valladolid, Univ. de Valladolid. pp. 209-230. (Film subtitling from English into Spanish.)

Brondeel, Herman (1994), "Teaching Subtitling Routines", in Meta, XXXIX, 1994, pp. 26-33. Available at 

Bruls, Emile & Kerkman, (eds.) (1988), Ondertiteling in Beeld. Een communicatiewetenschappelijk en -historisch onderzoek naar ondertiteling in film en televisie (Subtitling in the picture. A historical study of subtitling on film and TV based on communication science), MA th., Inst. of Mass Communication, Univ. of Amsterdam, 178 p.

Bruti, Silvia (2006), "Cross-cultural Pragmatics: The Translation of Implicit Compliments in Subtitles" in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 06, July 2006, pp. 185-197. Available at 

Bruun, Linda (2000), Målgruppedifferentieret tv-tekstning - en empirisk undersøgelse (Target group differentiated TV subtitling - an empirical study), thesis, Copenhagen Business School

Büchner, Claudia () Unterschiede zwischen Synchronisation und Untertitelung am Beispiel des Films „Breakfast of Champions“, Fachhochschule Magdeburg, Fachbereich Fachkommunikation

Caillé, P.F. (1965), "La traduction au cinéma", in Italiaander, Rolf, (ed.), Übersetzen - Vorträge und Beiträge vom Internationalen Kongress literarischer Übersetzer in Hamburg 1965, Athenäum Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, pp. 116-22.

Caimi, Annamaria (ed.) (2002), Cinema: Paradiso delle lingue. I sottotitoli nell'apprendimento linguistico, Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Applicata, Anno XXXIV, 1/2-2002, Bulzoni Editore, Roma, 436 p. (In addition to essays on subtitles and their use in teaching languages, the volume contains an updated version of Henrik Gottlieb's bibliography.)


Caimi, Annamaria (2006), "Audiovisual Translation and Language Learning: The Promotion of Intralingual Subtitles", in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 06, July 2006, pp. 85-98. Available at 

Card, Lorin (1998), "Je vois ce que vous voulez dire: un essai sur la notion de l'équivalence dans les sous-titres de 37°2 Le matin et de Au revoir les enfants", in Meta, XLIII, 2, 1998. Available at 


Carroll, Mary (2004), “Focus on standards - Subtitling: Changing standards for new media”, in The Globalisation Insider XIII, 3.3. Can be found at


Carroll, Mary (2004), “Translation - a changing profession", in Translating Today, Issue 1, October 2004, pp. 4-7.


Carroll, Mary (2005), "Audiovisual Media: New Profiles for Translators and Interpreters", in Mayer, Felix (ed.), 20 Jahre Transforum. Koordinierung von Praxis und Lehre des Dolmetschens und Übersetzens, Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, pp. 73-89.


Carroll, Mary (2005), "Subtitling - Translation to an Interplay of Rhythms in a Polysemiotic Setting", in Salevsky, H. (Ed.), Kultur, Interpretation, Translation, Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main, pp.251-8


Carroll, Mary, Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun & Nauert, Sandra (eds.) (2006), MuTra: Audiovisual Translation Scenarios. Copenhagen 1-5 May 2006, at 


Chaume Varela, Frederic (2000), La traducción audiovisual: estudio descriptivo y modelo de análisis de los textos audiovisuales para su traducción, PhD thesis, Castellón, Univ. Jame I.

Chaume Varela, Frederic & Agost, Rosa (eds.) (2001), La traducción en los medios audiovisuales, Univ. Jaime I, Castellón de la Plana, 250 p.

Chiaro, Delia (2006), "Verbally Expressed Humour on Screen: Reflections on Translation and Reception" in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 06, July 2006, pp. 198-208. Available at 


Chiaro, Delia (ed.) (2010), Translation, Humour and the Media (Translation and Humour Vol. 2), Continuum Advances in Translation, Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd, London. 
(Examines the intersection of humour and translation studies as found in the media -- on television, in film and in print.)

Chiaro, Delia, Heiss, Christine, Bucaria, Chiara (eds.) (2008), Between text and image: updating research in screen translation, 295 p., John Benjamins. 


"Comparative Subtitling Project", at 

Condinho Bravo, Maria da Conceição (2008), Putting the reader in the picture: Screen translation and foreign-language learning, Ph.d. thesis, Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Spain, 246 p. Can be downloaded from 

Daborn, John (1960), Cine Titling, Fountain Press, London, 112 p. (Titling amateur films.)

Danan, Martine (1994), From Nationalism to Globalization: France's Challenges to Hollywood's Hegemony, PhD thesis, Michigan Technological Univ., 266 p. (Much on nationalism's influence on the choice dubbing/subtitling in European countries.) 

Delabatista, Dirk (1989), "Translation and Mass Communication: Film and TV Translation as Evidence of Cultural Dynamics", in Babel, 35:4, pp. 193-218. 

Delabastita, Dirk (ed.) (1997) Traductio. Essays on Punning and Translation, St. Jerome Publishing, Manchester, 300 p. 

den Boer, Corien (2001), “Live interlingual subtitling”, in Y. Gambier, H. Gottlieb (eds.), (Multi)media translation: concepts, practices and research, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, pp. 167-172.

Díaz Cintas, Jorge (1997), El subtitulado en tanto que modalidad de traducción fílmica dentro del marco teórico de los Estudios sobre Traducción. (”Misterioso asesinato en Manhattan”, Woody Allen 1993) (Subtitling as a mode of film translation within a Translation Studies framework - Manhattan Murder Mysteries, Woody Allen 1993) PhD thesis, Valencia, 479 p. 

Díaz Cintas, Jorge (2001), La traducción audiovisual: El subtitulado, Ed. Almar, Salamanca, 173 p. 

Díaz Cintas, Jorge (2003),Teoría y práctica de la subtitulación: inglés/español, Barcelona, Ariel, 416 p. (With a DVD containing a subtitling simulation programme and exercises)

Diaz Cintas, Jorge (2004), "Subtitling: the long journey to academic acknowledgement", in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 01, 2004, pp. 50-68. Available at 

Díaz Cintas, Jorge (2005), "Back to the Future in Subtitling", in MuTra Conference Proceedings, 17 p., at 

Díaz Cintas, Jorge & Muñoz Sánchez, Pablo (2006), "Fansubs: Audiovisual Translation in an Amateur Environment", in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 06, July 2006, pp. 37-52. Available at  


Díaz Cintas, Jorge & Remael, Aline (2007), Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling (Translation Practices Explained, 11), Manchester, UK, & Kinderhook (NY), USA, St. Jerome Publishing, 272 p + DVD 

(Introduction to Subtitling, Professional Environment, Semiotics of Subtitling, Technical Considerations, Conventions, Linguistics of Subtitling, Translation Issues, and, above all, a DVD containing a WinCAPS subtitling program with exercises for every chapter as well as film clips in English, French, Italian and Dutch, as well as practical information)

Díaz Cintas, Jorge & Anderman, Gunilla (eds.) (2008), Audiovisual Translation: Language Transfer on Screen. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 272 p.

Diaz Cintas, Jorge (ed.) 2009. New Trends in Audiovisual Translation. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 216 p. Contents in  

Díaz Cintas, Jorge; Matamala, Anna & Neves, Josélia (eds.)(2010), New Insights into Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility, Media for All 2, (Approaches to Translation Studies 33) Amsterdam/New York, 310 p.

Diekmann, Helmut (2005), "Strategies for Translating from Finnish into German and vice versa", in MuTra Conference Proceedings, 11 p., at 

Downey, Gregory J. (2008), Closed Captioning: Subtitling, Stenography, and the Digital Convergence of Text with Television, 400 p., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Univerity Press.

Dries, Josephine (1995), Dubbing and Subtitling. Guidelines for Production and Distribution, European Institute for the Media, Düsseldorf, 73 p. (Much good advice on what can be done to facilitate the dubber's and subtitler's work.) 

Duro, Miguel (ed.) (2001), La traducción para el doblaje y la subtitulación, Madrid, Cátedra (Signo e Imagen: 63), 364 p. 


d'Ydewalle, Géry; van Rensbergen, Johan & Pollet, Joris (1987), "Reading a Message when the Same Message Is Available Auditorily in Another Language: The Case of Subtitling." In a) Psychological Reports of Leuven University #54, 1985 28 p., b) Eye Movements: From Physiology to Cognition, eds. J.K. O'Regan and A.Lévy-Schoen, Amsterdam, pp. 313-21. 

d'Ydewalle, Gery & Pavakanun, Ubowanna (1996), "Le sous-titrage à la télévision facilite-t-il l'apprentissage des langues?", in Gambier, Yves (ed.) (1996), Les transferts linguistiques dans les médias audiovisuels, pp. 217-23. 

"EBU Dubbing and Subtitling Conference, Stockholm 1987." In EBU Review, vol. XXXVIII nr 6, November 1987, pp. 8-31. 


Egoyan, Atom & Balfour, Ian (eds.) (2004), Subtitles: on the foreignness of film.  Alphabet City Media, MIT Press, Cambridge Mass., pp. 544.

Eguíluz, Federico; Merino, Raquel; Olsen, Vickie; Pajares, Eterio & Santamaría; José Miguel (eds.) (1994), Transvases Culturales: Literatura, Cine, Traduccíon. Proceedings from the "Congreso Internacional sobre Transvases Culturales: Literatura, Cine y Traduccíon, Vitoria 20-22.05.1993". Univ. del Pais Vasco, Vitoria. 

Estrup, Christina (2002), Quality and anglicisms in DVD subtitling, MA essay, Copenhagen Univ., Dept. of English, 79 p. 

Etxebarria, Igone (1994), "Doblaje y subtitulación en Euskal Televista", in Transvases culturales: literatura, cine y traducción, Univ. del País Vasco, Vitoria. 

Fawcett, P., (1996), "Translating film", in G.T. Harris (ed.) On Translating French Literature and Film, Amsterdam & Atlanta GA, Rodopi Perspectives on Modern Literature 16, pp. 65-88. 

Findahl, Olle (1989), "Language in the Age of Satellite Television", in European Journal of Communication, IV/1, March 1989, pp. 133-59.

Fong, Gilbert & Au, Kenneth (2009), Dubbing and Subtitling in a World Context, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong,  (Papers from International Conference on Dubbing and Subtitling in Hong Kong, Oct. 2001), 12+291 pp. Table of contents at 

Freddi, Maria & Pavesi, Maria (eds) 2009. Analysing Audiovisual Dialogue: Linguistic and Translational Insights, 216 p., Bologna: Clueb.

Gambier, Yves (ed.) (1995), Audiovisual Communication and Language Transfer, Strasbourg 22-24.6.1995, Proceedings, in Translatio, Nouvelles de la FIT & FIT Newsletter, N.S. XIV, nos 3-4, pp. 197-492. (33 papers, mainly on subtitling.) 

Gambier, Yves (ed.) (1996), Les transferts linguistiques dans les médias audiovisuels, Villeneuve d'Ascq, Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 246 p. 

Gambier, Yves (ed.) (1998), Translating for the Media. Papers from the International Conference Languages & the Media. Berlin, November 22-23, 1996. Univ. of Turku, Centre for Translation and Interpreting, Turku, 317 p. 

Gambier, Yves & Gottlieb, Henrik (eds.) (2001), (Multi)Media Translation. Concepts, Practices and Research (selected papers from the Multimedia & Translation seminar, Misano, September 1997 and the second Languages and the Media conference, Berlin, October 1998), John Benjamin's, Amsterdam, 298 p.


Gambier, Yves (2003), Screen Transadaptation: Perception and Reception, in Translator 2003, Vol. 9, Part 2, pp. 171-190, Manchester: John Benjamin’s Publishing


Georgakopoulou, Panayota (2003), Redundancy Levels in Subtitling. DVD Subtitling: A Compromise of Trends. PhD Thesis. Guildford: University of Surrey


Georgakopoulou, Panayota (2006) "Subtitling and Globalisation" in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 06, July 2006, pp. 115-120. (On the use of templates in DVD subtitling.) Available at

Gerow, Aaron (1994), "The Benshi's New Face: Defining Cinema in Taisho Japan", in Iconics, 3, Nihon University, Tokyo. (On the Japanese predecessor of subtitles)

Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun (2005), "Introducing Multidimensional Translation", in MuTra Conference Proceedings, 15 p., at 

Gottlieb, Henrik (1994), Tekstning - Synkron Billedmedieoversættelse (Subtitling - Synchronous Image Media Translation), Prize essay, DAO nr 5, Center for Translation Studies and Lexicography, Univ. of Copenhagen, 309 p. (With an English summary.) 

Gottlieb, Henrik (1997), Subtitles, Translation & Idioms, PhD thesis, Center for Translation Studies and Lexicography, Dept. of English, Univ. of Copenhagen, 354 p. 

Gottlieb, Henrik (2001), Screen Translation. Six studies in subtitling, dubbing and voice-over, Center for Translation Studies, Department of English, Univ. of Copenhagen, 161 p. 

Gottlieb, Henrik (2004), "Subtitles and international anglification", in Dollerup, Cay (ed.), Worlds of Words: A Tribute to Arne Zettersten, Nordic Journal of English Studies, Special Issue, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2004. 

Gottlieb, Henrik (2005), Screen Translation. Eight studies in subtitling, dubbing and voice-over, Center for Translation Studies, Department of English, Univ. of Copenhagen, 219 p. 


Gottlieb, Henrik (2005) "Multidimensional Translation: Semantics turned Semiotics", in MuTra Conference Proceedings, 29 p., at 


Grillo, Virgil &  Kawin, Bruce (1981), "Reading at the Movies: Subtitles, Silence and the Structure of the Brain", in Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities, 1/1, fall 1981, pp. 25-32, Jacksonville University, Florida

Groenwold, S. (1986), Ondertiteling, University of Copenhagen, PhD thesis. 

Grosman, Meta & Kadric, Mira & Kovacic, Irena & Snell-Hornby, Mary (eds.) (2000), Translation into Non-Mother Tongues in Professional Practice and Training, Stauffenburg, Studien zur Translation, Band 8, 229 pp.

Guardini, Paola (1998), "Decision-making in subtitling", in Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, vol. 6:1, 1998. 


Hajmohammadi, Ali (2005), The Viewer as the Focus of Subtitling. Towards a Viewer-oriented Approach, University of Allameh Tabatabai, Tehran. Available at or 

Harrison, Mary (1984), Film Translation - Subtitles, Diss., Polytechnics of Central London, 79 p.

Hartama, Marko (), Disclosure of Subtitling Strategies - An Analysis of Cinema and Video Subtitling in a Feature Film, University of Helsinki, Kouvola Department of Translation Studies

Hatim, Basil, and Mason, Ian (1997), "Politeness in Screen Translating", in Lawrence Venuti & Mona Baker, (eds.) The Translation Studies Reader, London, Routledge, 2000, pp. 430-45.

Heiss, Christine & Bollettieri Bosinelli, Rosa Maria (eds.) (1996) Traduzione multimediale per il cinema, la televisione e la scena. Atti del convegno internazionale, Forlì 26-28 ottobre 1995, Biblioteca della Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per interpreti e Traduttori Forlí, CLUEB, Bologna.

Hengsberger, Margit (1999), Untertitel als Übersetzungsproblem.Ein deutsch-englischer Vergleich anhand von "Fawlty Towers", MA thesis, Institut für Übersetzer- und Dolmetscherausbildung der Universität Wien, Vienna. 

Holobow, N.E.; Lambert, W.E. & Sayegh, L. (1984), "Pairing Script and Dialogue: Combinations that Show Promise for Second Language Learning", in Language Learning, 34:4, pp. 59-76. 

Imhauser, Corinne (2001), "Les outils d'aide à l'enseignement du sous-titrage", in Formation des traducteurs, 2, La maison du dictionnaire, Paris, pp. 47-56.

Imhauser, Corinne (2002), "L'enseignement du sous-titrage: défi technologique ou appel à l'imagination?" in Il Traduttore Nuovo, "Multimedia 2000", Atti del convegno, vol. LVII, AITI, Genova, pp. 181-188.

Imhauser, Corinne (2002), "Le marché du sous-titrage en 2002", in Traduction pour les médias, Colloque international, Univ. de Rennes II.

Ivarsson, Jan (1992), Subtitling for the Media. A Handbook of an Art, TransEdit, Stockholm, 199 p. 

Ivarsson, Jan & Carroll, Mary (1998), Subtitling, TransEdit, Simrishamn, xii + 185 p. (A new and augmented edition of the above.) 

Ivarsons, Jans (1998), Subtitresanas maksla, LAT2 macibu metodikas izdevumu serija, LVAVP un UNDP, Riga, 164 p. (Ivarsson 1992 in Latvian.) 


Ivarsson, Fredrik (2007), Undertextning: Kvalitetsskillnader mellan professionella undertextare och amatörer, MA paper, Linköping univ., 95 p. (Quality comparison between professional and amateur subtitlers. No english summary) Obtainable at 

Izard, Natàlia (1993), La traducció cinematogràfica, Centre d'investigació de la communicació, Generalitat de Catalunya, 126 p. 

Jacobs, Anne-Catherine (1994), Le coût des barrières linguistiques dans l'audiovisuel en Europe: le doublage et le sous-titrage, Thesis, Hautes Études Commerciales, Liège. 

Jaskanen, Susanna (1999), On the inside track to Loserville, USA: strategies used in translating humour in two Finnish versions of “Reality Bites”, MA essay, Univ. of Helsinki. Available at: 

Johansson, Ewa (1997), The Subtitler as Mediator Between Cultures. A Study of Culture-Specific Problems in Subtitling British Series for Swedish Television, MA paper, Stockholm Univ., 36 p. 

Kagansky, Nina (1995), TITRA FILM. Une chronique cinématographique et familiale, Paris, 80 p. (A contribution to the early history of subtitling.) 

Karamitroglou, Fotios (1996), Translation Theory and Screen/Film Translation: An Evaluative Overview, MSc Diss. Univ. of Manchester. (Abstract at

Karamitroglou, Fotios (2000), Towards a Methodology for the Investigation of Norms in Audiovisual Translation: The Choice between Subtitling and Revoicing in Greece, (PhD th. 1998, Univ. of Manchester Inst. of Science and Technology), Rodopi, Amsterdam, ix + 282 p. (Abstract at


Kayahara, Matthew  (2004), "The Digital Revolution: DVD Technology and the Possibilities for Audiovisual Translation Studies" in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 03, January 2004, pp. 45-48. Available at

Keen, Ben & Watson, Neil (1992), The Challenge of Language in European Film, Report from British Screen Advisory Council & Media Business School Seminar, July 1992, Madrid, 57 p. (An initiative of the EU MEDIA programme: A bad translation ruins the chance of exporting a film.) 

Kilborn, Richard (1993), "'Speak my language': current attitudes to television subtitling and dubbing", in Media, Culture and Society, vol. 15, SAGE Publications, London, pp. 641-60. 

Knittel, Pamela (), Theory, Policy, Practice and Potentials of Subtitling - An Investigation into Subtitling at the New Zealand Maori Television Station, and the Subtitling from English to German of the Film Whale Rider, University of Auckland

Koike, Satoshi (1989), A Sociolinguistic and Communicative Analysis of the Translation Processes in Making Subtitles for the Movies: A Case Study of a Japanese Movie "Ikiru (To Live)" with English Subtitles, MA thesis, Univ. of Hawai'i, Manoa, 132 p. 

Koljonen, Tiina (1998), TV-textning - konsten att komprimera (TV subtitling - the art of condensing), PhD thesis, Dept. of Nordic Languages, Univ. of Jyväskylä, 192 p. 

Koolstra, Cees M. (1993), Television and Children's Reading: A Three-Year Panel Study, PhD thesis, Centre for Child and Media Studies, Leiden Univ. (Short version in Reading Research Quarterly, 32/2, April-June 1997, pp. 128-152) 

Koolstra, C.M.; Van der Voort, T.H.; d’Ydewalle, G. (1999), “Lengthening the presentation time of subtitles on television: effects on children’s reading time and recognition”, Communications, 24:4, pp. 407-422. 

Kovacic, Irena (1992), Jezikoslovni pogled na podnaslovno prevajanje televizijskih oddaj (Linguistic aspects of subtitling television programmes), PhD thesis, Fac. of Philosophy, Univ. of Ljublana. 

Laks, Simon (1957), Le sous-titrage de films. Sa technique – son esthétique, Propriété de l’auteur, Paris, 62 p. 

Language International, April 2002, "Dubbing & Subtitling" issue, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 48 p.

Languages & the Media. Les langues dans l'audiovisuel. Sprachen & Medien. Book of Abstracts, 2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Quality and Standards in Audiovisual Language Transfer, October 15-16, 1998, (ed. Andreas Marks), ICEF GmbH, Berlin, 79 p.

Larsson, Lotte Givskov Printz (1998), Tv-tekstning: En oversættelsesform placeret på øretævernes holdeplads. En undersøgelse af seerkritik af danske undertekster med fokus på kulturspecifikke problemer i britisk humor (TV subtitling: a type of translation asking for trouble. A study of viewer attitudes to Danish subtitles with special emphasis on culture-related problems in British humor), MA thesis, Aarhus Business School, 110 p. 

Lavaur, Jean-Marc & Serban, Adriana (eds.) (2008) La traduction audiovisuelle : Approche interdisciplinaire du sous-titrage. De Boeck. 162 p. Collection Traducto

Lecuona, Lourdes (1994), "Entre el doblaje y la subtitulación: la interpretación simultánea en el cine", in Eguíluz, Federico et al. (eds.), Transvases culturales: literatura, cine y traducción, Univ. del País Vasco, Vitoria.

Lindberg, Ib (1997), Nogle regler om tv-tekstning (Some rules for TV subtitling: states norms shared by DR and TV2 and gives advice on esthetics and check procedures), footnotes by Niels Søndergaard. (In Danish) At 

Lombardo, L.; Haarman, L.; Morley, J. & Taylor, C. (1999), Massed medias. Linguistic tools for interpreting media discourse, Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto, Milano, 316 p. 

Lomheim, Sylfest (1999), Skrifta på skjermen. Korleis skjer teksting av fjernsynsfilm?, Høyskoleforlaget/Nordic Academic Press, 159 p. (Abridged version in English, "The Writing on the Screen", in G. Anderman & M. Rogers (eds.), 1999, Word, Text, Translation. Liber Amicorum for Peter Newmark, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp. 190-207) 

Lorenzo García, Lourdes & Pereira Rodríguez, Ana Maria (eds.) (2001), Traducción subordinada (II) El Subtitulado (Inglés-español/galego), Univ. de Vigo, 253 p. 

Luttinen, Sonja (1996), Vergleich zwischen den zwei Übersetzungen des Filmes "Das schreckliche Mädchen“, BA essay, Uppsala Univ., 29 p. 

Luyken, G. M.; Herbst, Thomas; Langham-Brown, Jo; Reid, Helen & Spinhof, Herman (1991), Overcoming Language Barriers in Television. Dubbing and Subtitling for the European Audience, Media Monographs no. 13, European Institute for the Media, Manchester, 232 + xxii p. (Also in French) 

Machado, José (1993), La traduction au cinéma et le processus de sous-titrage de films, PhD thesis, École Supérieure d'Interprètes et de Traducteurs, Univ. de Paris III, 400 + 100 p. 

Machefer, Danièle (1987), Deux aspects de la traduction au cinéma: sous-titrage et doublage, PhD thesis, Univ. de Paris VIII, 372 p.


Mailhac, Jean-Pierre (2000), "Subtitling and Dubbing, For Better or Worse? The English Video Versions of Gazon maudit ", in Salama-Carr, Myriam (ed.), On translating French literature and film II. Amsterdam & Atalanta GA, Rodopi Perspectives on Modern Literature 22.

Marleau, Lucien (1982), "Les sous-titres... un mal nécessaire", Meta, XXVII, 3, 1982, pp. 271-285. Available at 


Mattsson, Jenny (2009), The Subtitling of Discourse Particles. A corpus-based study of well, you know, I mean, and like, and their Swedish translations in ten American films , Ph.d.thesis, Univ. of Gothenburg, 293+8 pp. Can be downloaded from 


Media Consulting Group (2007), Study on Dubbing and Subtitling Needs and Practices in the European Audiovisual Industry. Final Report, Media Consulting Group, Paris / Peacefulfish, London, 133 p. Obtainable in English or French from 


Memmi, Paul J. (2006), Étude sémiolinguistique du sous-titrage pour une écriture concise assistée par ordinateur (ECAO) avec application a l'audiovisuel, PhD thesis, Univ. de Paris X-Nanterre, 241 + 220 p.  Available at or 

Minchinton, John (1993), Subtitling, Unpublished manuscript, Hertfordsh, England. 

Mortensen, Hans Palle (1999), Receptive viewers? Reaction patterns in Danish viewers to violations against existing subtitling norms, Research report, interim version, Danmarks Radio, Copenhagen.

Muylle, Patrick (1984), Oogbewegingsregistratie bij het bekijken van ander­stalige ondertitelde televisieprogramma's (Registration of eye movements when viewing foreign, subtitled TV programs) MA thesis, Dept. of Psychology, Leuven Univ., 125 p. (Great individual differences; but reading time is well used; one-liners more easily read.)

Nawarecki, Damian (1989), TV-tekstning - det (u)muliges kunst. Analyse og teknik på grundlag af tv-programmet "Portrait: Henri de Montpezat ‑ Prince Consort du Danemark" (TV subtitling - the art of the (im)possible. Analysis and technique based on the TV program "Portrait: Henri de Montpezat ‑ Prince Consort du Danemark"), MA thesis, Copenhagen Business School, 202 p.

Nedergaard-Larsen, Birgit & Gottlieb, Henrik (Eds.) (1992), TV-tekster: Oversættelse efter mål. (Danske afhandlinger om oversættelse, Nr. 3, København: Center for Oversættelsevidenskab og Leksigrafi, Københavns Universitet, 131 p.

Nedergaard-Larsen, Birgit (1993), "Culture-bound problems in subtitling", in Perspectives: Studies in translatology, 1993:2, pp. 207-242

Nironi, Francesca (1995), Sottotitolazione e traduzione: Questioni pratiche e teoriche, MA thesis, Universitá degli studi di Trieste, Sc. Sup. di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori, 387 p. (Contains a small "handbook" in Italian on subtitling.) 

Nordisk tv-teksting, Rapport fra en konferanse... 25-27 nov. 1988 (1989) Nordisk Språksekretariats rapporter,12, Oslo, 141 p.

Nornes, Abe Mark (1999), "For an Abusive Subtitling - Subtitles of Motion Pictures", in Film Quarterly, Spring 1999, pp.1-24. Also in Lawrence Venuti (ed.), The Translation Studies Reader. Second Edition (2004), London New York, Routledge.

Ntokmetzioglou, Pinelopi (2000), Subtitling – Theory and Practice. MA diss., Southampton Institute, 120 p. 

Ntokmetzioglou, Pinelopi (2001), Translating Medical Texts for the Media: Subtitling Medical Documentaries, MA diss., Univ. of Portsmouth, 144 p. 

O'Connell, Eithne (1994), "Media translation and lesser-used languages: implications of subtitles for the Irish Language Broadcasting", in Eguíluz et al. (eds.)1994: Transvases culturales: literatura, cine y traducción, Univ. del País Vasco, Vitoria, pp. 367-373. 

O'Connell, Eithne (2004), "Serving Our Purposes: audiovisual media, language planning and minority languages", in Mercator Media Forum, 7, 29-41. Also in G. Jones (ed.), Proceedings of the 1st Mercator International Symposium on Minority Languages and Research. Available online:

O'Connell, Eithne (2004), "Subtitles and Language Learning", in M. Smith (ed.) Readings in the Teaching of Culture: Culture: Mine, Yours, Whose?, ITE (International Technology Exchange), Dublin, pp. 75-77.

O'Hagan, Minako (1996), The Coming Industry of Teletranslation. Overcoming Communication Barriers through Telecommunication, Topics in Translation: 4, Multilingual Matters Ltd, Clevedon, 120 p. (Although not directly concerned with subtitling, a wealth of information and prophecies on the possibilities of IT in this field.) 

O’Hagan, Minako & Ashworth, David (2002), Translation-mediated Communication in a Digital World: Facing the Challenges of Globalization and Localization, Topics in Translation 23, Clevedon, Multilingual Matters, 168 p. 

O’Hagan, Minako (2005), "Multidimensional Translation: A Game Plan for Audiovisual Translation in the Age of GILT" (mainly on video games), in MuTra Conference Proceedings, 12 p., at 

O'Regan, J. Kevin (1986), La lisibilité de textes à l'écran en fonction des espaces inter-mots, inter-lettres, inter-lignes, et de la matrice typographique. Rapport du Groupe Regard, Laboratoire de Psychologie Expérimentale, Paris V, Univ. René Descartes, 35 + 28 p. 

O'Regan, J. Kevin (1991), "Understanding visual search and reading using the concept of stimulus grain", in IPO Annual Progress Report 26, pp. 96-108. 


Orero, Pilar (ed.) (2004), Topics in Audiovisual Translation, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, xiii + 225 p.

O’Shea, Billy (1996), “Equivalence in Danish News Subtitling from Northern Ireland”, in Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, Vol. 4, 1996:2, pp. 235-254. 

O’Shea, Billy (1999), On Information, Culture and Translation, Prize essay, Univ. of Copenhagen, 108 p. 

Pageon, Daniel (2007), The World of the Voice Over. London: Actors World Production (AWP).

Pavesi, Maria & Perego, Elisa (2006), "Profiling Film Translators In Italy: A Preliminary Analysis", in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 06, July 2006, pp. 99-144. Available at 


Pedersen, Jan (2005), "How is culture rendered in subtitles?", in MuTra Conference Proceedings, 18 p., at 


Pedersen, Jan (2007), Scandinavian Subtitles. A Comparative Study of Subtitling Norms in Sweden and Denmark with a Focus on Extralinguistic Cultural References, Ph.D. Thesis, Stockholm University, Dept. of English, 302 p.

Pedersen, Kim & Kidmose, Anders (1993), [in black & white]. an r&d report on typography and legibility, Graphic College of Denmark, Copenhagen, 112 p.


Perego, Elisa (2005), La traduzione audiovisiva, Carocci, Roma, 128 p.


Pettit, Zoë (2000), Sous-titrage et doublage: Interaction entre langage et image dans une sélection de genres audiovisuels [Subtitling and dubbing: Interaction between language and image in a selection of audiovisual genres]. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Univ. Paul Valéry, Montpellier.


Pettit, Zoë (2004), "The Audio-visual Text: Subtitling and Dubbing Different Genres" in Gambier, (ed.), Audiovisual Translation, Montréal : Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal. Special issue of Meta 49 (1), pp. 25-38.

Pettit, Zoë (2005), "Translating register, style and tone in dubbing and subtitling." Journal of Specialised Translation [online], 4, pp. 49-65. Available at

Pollet, Joris (1986), Invloed van de projectietijd van ondertitels en de taalkennis op het kijkgedrag bij anderstalige ondertitelde t.v.‑programma's (The importance of subtitle exposure times and language skills for audience behaviour while watching subtitled foreign TV programs), MA thesis, Dept. of Psychology, Leuven Univ., 101 p. & app. (Discussion of 1-liners versus 2-liners; 6-seconds rule confirmed.) 

Praet, Caroline et al. (1990), "A One Line Text Is Not Half a Two Line Text", in Groner, R., d'Ydewalle, G., Parham, D. (eds.), From Eye to Mind: Information Acquisition in Perception, Search and Reading, Elsevier Science Publ., North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 205-213. 

Reid, Helene (1977), "Subtitling, the Intelligent Solution" In P. Horguelin (ed.), Translating, a Profession, Proceedings of the VIII World Congress, International Federation of Translators,  Montréal, pp. 420-428. 

Reid, Helene (1986), The Relationship of Subtitling to Programme Genres and Audience Categories, European Institute for the Media, Manchester, 29 p. 

Reid, Helene (1990), "Literature on the Screen: Subtitle Translation for Public Broadcasting". In: Westerweel, B. & Haen, T.D. (eds), Something Understood: Studies in Anglo-Dutch Literary Translation, DQR Studies in Literature 5, Amsterdam, Atlanta: G.A. Rodopi, pp. 79-109. 

Remael, Aline & Neves, Josélia (eds.) 2007, A tool for social integration? Audiovisual translation from different angles, Linguistica Antverpiensia New Series, Vol. 6/2007 (Table of content in )

Roffe, Ian & Thorne, David (1994), "Transcultural Language Transfer: Subtitling from a Minority Language", in Dollerup, C. & Lindegaard, A. (eds), Teaching Translating and Interpreting - Insights, Aims, Visions. Proceedings of the 2nd "Language International" Conference, Elsinore 4-6/6/1993, Amsterdam, pp. 253-9. 

Sandrelli, Annalisa (1996), "Caro Diario" di Nanni Moretti: studio comparato delle versioni sottotitolate in inglese e spagnolo ("Caro Diario" by Nanni Moretti: comparative study of the subtitled versions in English and Spanish), MA thesis, Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori, Università di Trieste, 201 p. + app. 

Schröpf, Ramona (2003), Übersetzungsstrategien und –probleme beim Untertiteln (unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der kulturellen Dimensionen), Diplomarbeit,  Universität des Saarlandes, Angew.Sprachwissenschaft, 136 p.

Schwarz, Barbara (2002-3), "Translation in a Confined Space", part 1 in Translation Journal, Vol. 6, No. 4, Oct. 2002, part 2 in Vol. 7, No.1, Jan. 2003. Available at and 

Shaw, Alison (1969), Print for Partial Sight, A report to the Library Association Subcommittee on Books for Readers with Defective Sight, Library Association, London, 92 p. 


Shochat, Ella & Stam, Robert (1985), "The Cinema After Babel: Language, Difference, Power", Screen 26.3-4 (May-August 1985), pp. 35-58.

Sigurbjörnsson, Ellert B. (1999), Mál og mynd. Leiðbeiningar um textagerð, þýðingar og málfar í sjónvarpi og öðrum myndmiðlum. Ríkisútvarpið–Sjónvarp, Reykjavik, 62 p. 


Simons, Anthony (1996), "The Problem of Narrative 'Dialogue'. Translation and Reception of Le Journal D'une Femme De Chambre", in Harris, T. Geoffrey (ed.), On Translating French Literature and Film, Amsterdam & Atalanta GA, Rodopi  Perspectives on Modern Literature 16.


Sinha, Amresh (2004), "The Use and Abuse of Subtitles", in Egoyan & Balfour, Subtitles: on the foreignness of film.

Slembrouck, S. (1999), “Translation, direct quotations and decontextualisation”, in Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 7:1, pp. 81-108.

Spencer, Herbert (1969), The Visible Word. Problems of Legibility, Lund Humphries, London, 107 p.

Sponholz, Christine (2003), Teaching Audiovisual Translation. Theoretical Aspects, Market Requirements, University Training and Curriculum Development, Diplomarbeit, Univ. of Mainz, 87 p. Obtainable at

Sørensen, Nanette Skjødt & Toft, Mette (1998) Oversættelse af sproglige udtryk for kulturbundne fænomener - en komparativ analyse af den dubbede og den tekstede version af filmen "Jern Henrik" (Translation of verbal expressions for culture-bound phenomena - a comparative analysis of the dubbed and the subtitled versions of the film "Dennis the Menace"), MA thesis, Copenhagen Business School, 172 p. + app., with an English abstract. 

Tabor, Eva (1986), En kritisk analyse af tekstning fra spansk i kulturprogrammer og aktualitetsudsendelser i dansk fjernsyn (A critical analysis of subtitling from Spanish in culture and news programs on Danish TV), MA thesis, Copenhagen Business School, 107 p. & app.

Talka-Tarkkonen, A. (1997), Aspects of subtitling. Translating modality in news on Finnish television, MA thesis, Inst. for Translation in Savonlinna, Univ. of Joensuu, 83 p. 

Taylor, Christopher (ed.) (2000), Tradurre il cinema. Atti del Convegno organizzato da G. Soria e C. Taylor 29-30 novembre 1996, Dipartimento di scienze del linguaggio dell’interpretazione e della traduzione, Univ. degli studi di Trieste, 192 p.

Taylor, Christopher (2000), "The Subtitling of Film; reaching another community", in E. Ventola (ed.), Discourse and Community; Doing Functional Linguistics, Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen. Available at 


Thompson, Peter (2000), Notes on Subtitles and Superimposition, at 

Tomaszkiewicz, Teresa (1993), Les opérations linguistiques qui sous-tendent le processus de sous-titrage des films, Thesis, Adam Mickiewicz University, Seria Jezykoz-nawstwo Stosowane nr 13, Poznan, 286 p. (Very valuable studies of the processes of condensation, deletion, paraphrase, etc.)


Tortoriello, Adriana (2006), "Funny and Educational across Cultures: Subtitling Winnie The Pooh into Italian", in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 06, July 2006, pp. 53-67. Available at  

Törnqvist, Egil (1995), “Fixed Pictures, Changing Words: Subtitling and Dubbing the Film Babettes Gæstebud”, in Tijdschrift voor Skandinavistiek, 16 (1): 47-64. 

Törnqvist, Egil (1998), Ingmar Bergman Abroad. The Problems of Subtitling, Valedictory lecture, Amsterdam: Vossiupers AUP, 24 p. 

Trbic, Boris (2005), "Beyond Subtitles - Some Thoughts on Viewing Foreign Language Films (It’s the visuals, stupid)", in Bright Lights Film Journal, 48, May 2005. Also 

Tveit, Jan Emil (2004), Translating for Television. A Handbook in Screen Translation, ed. by the author (, Bergen, 139 p. (Centered on news translation.)


Valentini, Cristina (2006), "A Multimedia Database for the Training of Audiovisual Translators" in Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 06, July 2006, pp. 68-84. Available at  

Valkola, Kirsi Marjaana (1988), A comparative study of film conversations and their translations with special reference to conversation analysis, MA thesis, Inst. for Translation in Savonlinna, Univ. of Joensuu, 71 p. 

van den Eynde, Griet (1990), De ondertiteling bij "Fawlty Towers". Een onderzoek naar de vertaalstrategieën van de BRT, het Nederlands Omroep Bedrijf en Danmarks Radio (The subtitling of "Fawlty Towers". A study of the translation strategies of BRT, NOB and DR), MA thesis, Dept. of German Philology, Leuven Univ., 97 p. 

Vanderplank, Robert (1988), "The value of teletext subtitles in language learning", in English Language Teaching Journal, vol. 42/4, Oxford U.P., pp. 272-81. 

van der Worp, Willeke (1990), I begränsningen visar sig mästaren. Förkortning vid filmtextning (Small is beautiful. Reduction in film subtitling) MA thesis, Dept. of Scandinavian Studies, Univ. of Groningen, 127 p. 

Venäläinen, Minna Kati Anneli (1992), Translating swearwords in Finnish subtitles, MA thesis, Inst. for Translation in Savonlinna, Univ. of Joensuu, 155 p. (Four methods for rendering swearwords.)

Wahl, Christoph (1999), Zu der Geschichte und Praxis, den Problemen und Möglichkeiten der Film- und Fernseh-Untertitelung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verhältnisse in Deutschland, MA thesis, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 153 p. 

Widler, Brigitte (1995), Spitting Image. Die Übersetzung und Herstellung von Untertiteln am Beispiel von Spitting Image, MA thesis, Univ. of Vienna, 93 p. 

Ymchwil i'r galw am is-deitlo Cymraeg yng Nghymru =: Research into the demand for Welsh language subtitling in Wales (2001) RNID (ppb).

Zabalbeascoa y Terran, Patrick, Santamaria, Laura & Chaume, Frederic (eds.) (2005), La Traducción Audiovisual. Investigación, Enseñañza y Profesión, Granada: Comares.

Zabalbeascoa y Terran, Patrick (1993), Developing Translation Studies to Better Account for Audiovisual Texts and Other New Forms of Text Production (with special attention to the TV3 version of "Yes, Minister"), PhD thesis, Philology. Univ. of Leyden, 379 p. (Dubbing versus subtitling.) 

Zachrisson, Bror (1965), Studies in the Legibility of Printed Text, Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Stockholm studies in Educational Psychology 11, Almqvist & Wiksell, Uppsala, 225 p. 

Žener, Tatjana (1997), Treatment of Culture-Specific Terms in Subtitling, MA thesis, Inst. for Germanic Languages, Univ. of Ljubljana, 71 p. 

Zukowski, Nina (1999), “Bye Bye” – une étude des solutions de traduction dans deux sous-titrages, BA essay, Univ. de Lund, 24 p. 

On subtitling for the hearing impaired: 

Baker, Robert; Lambourne, Andrew; and Rowston, Guy (1984) Handbook for Television Subtitlers, Independent Broadcasting Authority, Crawley Court, Winchester, Hampshire, 61 p. 

Braverman, B. & Herzog, M. (1980), “The effects of caption rate and language level on comprehension of a captioned video presentation”, American Annals of the Deaf, 125, pp. 943-948. 

Buchholz, Axel & Kulpok, Alexander (1979), Revolution auf dem Bildschirm : die neuen Medien Videotext und Bildschirmtext Teletext, München, Goldmann-Sachbuch, 219 p. 

de Linde, Zoe (1993), Linguistic Strategies in Subtitling, Thesis, Cambridge Univ. 

de Linde, Zoe (1997), Linguistic and Visual Complexity of Television Subtitles, PhD thesis, Univ. of Bristol. 

de Linde, Zoe & Kay, Neil (1999), "Processing Subtitles and Film Images. Hearing Versus Deaf Viewers", in The Translator, 5.1, St. Jerome Publishing, Manchester

de Linde, Zoe & Kay, Neil (1999), The Semiotics of Subtitling, St. Jerome, Manchester, 107 p. 


Díaz Cintas, Jorge, Orero, Pilar  & Remael, Aline  (Eds.) (2007), Media for All. Subtitling for the Deaf, Audio Description, and Sign Language, Amsterdam/New York, NY,  pp. 255 + 4 ill.

Gaell, Ruth (ed.) (1999), Subtitling Consumer Report, Royal National Institute for Deaf People, 122 p. 


Intralingual Subtitling, First international seminar on new technologies in real time intralingual subtitling. Forlì, 17 November 2006. Contributions can be found at 

Jensema, Carl (1997), Final report for presentation rate and readability of closed captioned television (SuDoc ED 1.310/2:419354) Inst. for Disability Research and Training, Inc., U.S. Dept. of Education, Educational Resources Information Center.

Jensema, Carl (1999), Caption speed and viewer comprehension of television programs final report (SuDoc ED 1.310/2:434446) U.S. Dept. of Education, Educational Resources Information Center.

Koskinen, Patricia S. & Wilson, Robert M., Have You Read Any Good TV Lately? A Guide for Using Captioned Television in the Teaching of Reading, National Captioning Institute, Falls Church, VA, U.S.A. 

Kulpok, Alexander (1986), Teletext subtitling, formats and development possibilities in the Federal Republic of Germany, NOS workshop, Hilversum.

Kyle, Jim (1992), Switched On: Deaf People's Views on Television Subtitling, Centre for Deaf Studies, Univ. of Bristol, 235 p. (Report for the ITC and the BBC)


Melgarejo Weinandt, Claudia  (2005), Untertitelung für Hörgeschädigte in Frankreich und Deutschland – ein Vergleich, Diplomarbeit, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Übersetzen und Dolmetschen

Montén, Riccard (1975), Normalhörandes, hörselskadades och dövas krav på exponeringstid av tv-text (Hearing, hearing deficient and deaf: Their demands on exposure time of TV text), SR/PUB 11/75, Sveriges Radio, Stockholm, 48 p. 

National Captioning Institute (2002), NCI's Glossary of Captioning terms, at

Neves, Josélia (2005), Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing, 

PhD thesis, Roehanpton University, 357 p. (A fundamental work.)

Robson, Gary (2004), The Closed Captioning Handbook, Focal Press (Elsevier), Oxford, 375 p. (Captioning technology, a glossary, and a history of captioning.)

Sahlin, Ingrid (2001), Tal och undertexter i textade svenska TV-program (Speech and subtitles in captioned Swedish TV programs), PhD thesis, Nordistica Gothoburgensia 23, Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, Gothenburg, 773 p. (English summary 39 p.)

Sancho-Aldridge, Jane & IFF Research Ltd (1997), Good News for Deaf People: Subtitling of National News, Programmes, ITC, 51 p. 

"Television closed captioning: hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce", House of Repr., 101st Congress, 2nd session, on H.R. 4267, May 2, 1990 (SuDoc Y 4.En 2/3:101-145) U.S. G.P.O.; (1990), 74 p.

Wagner, Susanne (2005), "Intralingual speech-to-text-conversion in real-time: Challenges and Opportunities" in MuTra Conference Proceedings, 10 p., at   

Wilck, Frauke (2003), Eine Annäherung an die Anforderungen zur Medienuntertitelung für Gehörlose, Schwerhörige und Spätertaubte mit dem Schwerpunkt: Film-, Video- und DVD-Untertitelung, Univ. Hamburg, Inst. f. Deutsche Gebärdensprache, 37 p. (Can be downloaded from

There are also a number of "in-house" guides or manuals for subtitlers, stating rules for line and title breaks, punctuation, etc. They are usually not published, but they can often be had on demand from the company in question. Some examples are: 

BBC Subtitling Guide (London 1994, 20 p.) and BBC Subtitling Style Guide, (London1993, 48 p.) 

ITC Guidance on Standards for Subtitling (London 1997, 28 p.) 

Stijlboek NOB: Vertaling en Ondertiteling (Amsterdam 1994, 82 p.) 

SBS Subtitling Manual (Sydney 1998) and SBS Style Guide (Sydney 1998) 

TITEL-BILD Introduction to Subtitling for Film and Video (Berlin 1997, 64 p.) 

Literature on dubbing: 

Agost, Rosa (1999), Traducción y doblaje: palabras, voces e imágenes, Ariel, Barcelona, 159 p.

Ávila, Alejandro (1997), El doblaje, Ed. Cátedra, Madrid, 167 p.

Baccolini, R.; Bollettieri Bosinello, R.M. & Gavioli, L. (eds.) (1994), Il doppiaggio. Trasposizioni Linguistiche e culturali, CLUEB, Bologna, 198 p. 

Bernal Merino, Miguel Ángel (2002), La traducción audiovisual. Análisis prático de la traducción para los medios audiovisuales e introducción a la teoría de la traducción filológica, Univ. de Alicante, 108 p.

Blümner, Verena (2004), Synchronisation als Mediator im interkulturellen Kommunikationsprozeß, MA paper, Inst. Kommunikationswissenschaften, Freie Universität, Berlin.


Bravo, J.M. (2002), “Translating the Film Dialect of Hollywood for Dubbing”, in Bravo, J.M. (ed.), Nuevas perspectivas de los Estudios de Traducción. Valladolid, Univ. de Valladolid, pp. 187-214. 


Bravo, J.M. (2006), “Film Translation Research in Spain: The Dubbing of Hollywood Movies”, in Bowker, Lynne (ed.), Text-Based Translation Studies, Ottawa, Univ. of Ottawa Press. Forthcoming. (The State of the Art of Research into Film Translation for Dubbing in Spain.)

Castellano, Alberto (ed.) (2001), Il doppiaggio, I: Profilo, storia e analisi di un'arte negata, AIDAC, Roma, 144 p., II: Materiali, AIDAC, Roma, 512 p.

Danan, Martine (1991), "Dubbing as an Expression of Nationalism", in Meta, XXXVI, 4, 1991. Available at 

di Fortunato, E. & Paolinelli, M. (eds.) (1996), Barriere Linguistiche e Circolazione delle Opere Audiovisive: Questione Doppiaggio, AIDAC, Roma, 248 p. 

Fodor, Istvan (1976), Film Dubbing: Phonetic, Semiotic, Esthetic and Psychological Aspects, Helmut Buske Verlag, Hamburg. 


Freddi, Maria (2008), "Continuity and Variation across Translations: Phraseology in the Pavia Corpus of Film Dialogue", in  Ecolingua. The Role of E-corpora in Translation and Language Learning, ed. by C. Taylor, Univ. of Trieste, pp.52-70

Herbst, Thomas (1994), Linguistische Aspekte der Synchronisation von Fernsehserien. Phonetik, Textlinguistik, Übersetzungstheorie, Niemeyer, Tübingen, 327 p. 

Licari, Anita (ed.) (1994), Eric Rohmer in lingua italiana, Clueb, Bologna, 148 + 15 p. 

O'Connell, Eithne M.T. (2003), Minority Language Dubbing for Children. Screen Translation from German to Irish, Europaeische Hochschulschriften, Reihe XL, vol.81, Verlag Peter Lang, Bern, 211 p., ppb. 

Paolinelli, Mario & Di Fortunato, Eleonora (2005), Tradurre per il doppiaggio. La trasposizione linguistica nell'audiovisivo: teoria e pratica di un'arte imperfetta, Hoepli, Milano, 161 p.


Pavesi, Maria (2006), La traduzione filmica. Aspetti del parlato doppiato dall'inglese all'italiano, Carocci, Roma, 150 p.

Pisek, Gerhard (1992), Die große Illusion: Probleme und Möglichkeiten der Filmsynchronisation. Dargestellt an Woody Allens Annie Hall, Manhattan und Hannah and her Sisters, PhD thesis, Univ. Innsbruck, (Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 1994) 

Pommier, Christophe (1988), Doublage et postsynchronisation, Eds Dujarric, Paris, 126 p. 


Spadafora, Alessandra (2007), Inter Media. La mediazione interlinguistica negli audiovisivi, Viterbo: Settecittà, 110 p. (A semiotic, linguistic and pragmatic approach to dubbing)

Wehn, Karin (1996), Die deutschen Synchronisation(en) von “Magnum, P.I.” Rahmenbedingungen, serienspezifische Übersetzungs-probleme und Unterschiede zwischen Original- und Synchron-fassungen, Hallesche Medienarbeiten Jg.1/2, Martin-Luther-Univ., Halle-Wittenberg, 49 p. 

Whitman-Linsen, Candace (1992), Through the Dubbing Glass: The Synchronization of American Motion Pictures into German, French and Spanish, PhD thesis, Univ. of Saarbrücken, Eur. Univ. Studies: Ser. 14, Vol. 251, Verlag Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main/New York, 342 p. 

On sur-titling of theatrical performances:

Desmedt, S. (2002), Le Surtitrage pour Malentendants, unpublished thesis, Bruxelles: ISTI-HEB.


Dewolf, Linda (2001), “Surtitling operas. With examples of translations from German into French and Dutch”, in Y. Gambier, H. Gottlieb (eds.), (Multi)media translation: concepts, practices and research, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, pp. 179-188.

Eugeni, Carlo (2003), Il Teatro d'Opera e l'Adattamento Linguistico Simultaneo, M.A. paper, Univ. di Bologna. (With a rich bibliography and a sitography.)


Eugeni, Carlo (2006), "Il sopratitolaggio. Definizione e differenze con il sottotitolaggio", at 


Griesel, Yvonne (2005), "Surtitles and Translation. Towards an Integrative View of Theater Translation", in MuTra Conference Proceedings, 14 p., at 

Hay, J. (1998), “Subtitling and surtitling”, in Y. Gambier (ed.), Translating for the Media, St. Jerome Publishing, Manchester, pp. 131-138.

Lindsay, Jennifer (ed.) (2007), Between Tongues. Translation and/of/in Performance in Asia, NUS Press, Singapore, 302 p.

"Twenty-fifth birthday for subtitles", in Opera, 40:8, London, Oct. 1989, p. 920. 


Audio description

Dosch, Elmar & Benecke, Bernd (eds.) (2004), Wenn aus Bildern Worte werden. Durch Audio-Description zum Hörfilm, 3rd ed., Bayrischer Rundfunk, München, 48 p.

Translation theory:

Subtitlers as well as ordinary translators usually consider that they have nothing to learn from books on translation theory. They are often wrong, and the quality of their work would certainly profit if they perused books like 

Shuttleworth, Mark & Cowie, Moira (1997), Dictionary of Translation Studies , Manchester: St. Jerome, 233 p. (With a very valuable bibliography) 

Hofstadter, Douglas R. (1997), Le Ton beau de Marot. In Praise of the Music of Language, New York: Harper Basic Books, 632 p. (Ought to be compulsory reading for all aspiring translators)

Katan, David (1999), Translating Cultures - an Introduction for Translators, Interpreters and Mediators, St. Jerome Publishing, Manchester, 270 p. 

Newmark, Peter (1988), A Textbook of Translation, Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall, 292 p. 

Nida, Eugene A. & Taber, C.R. (1969/1982), The Theory and Practice of Translation, Leiden, E.J. Brill, 218 p. 

Steiner, George (1975,1992, 1998), After Babel. Aspects of Language and Translation, Oxford Univ. Press, 538 p. 

Venuti, Lawrence (1995, 2002, 2005), The Translator's Invisibility. A History of Translation, Routledge, London/NY, 353 p.

And of course the invaluable

Monaco, James (2009), How to Read a Film. Movies, Media and Beyond: art, technology, language, history, theory, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, 736 p.

Updated 6.12.2010     <----Home         Top of page