Subtitler's and translator's Internet tools


A Webliography


This page is principally intended to serve the needs and interests of subtitlers, but as subtitling in many countries is first and foremost a translator’s job, it can of course be useful for other translators as well. As the major part of screen translation is from English into other languages, I have concentrated on information in this direction, but tips for other languages are often given.







Acronyms, abbreviations, trademarks          Newspapers, reviews
Animals, plants, nature Police, law, etc.
Arts, architecture, music Quotations, etc.
Biography Rap, rasta, hiphop, graffiti
Comics Reference works, encyclopaedias, etc
Communications, cars, trains, air... Religion, hymns, religious texts, myths
Computers & Internet
Conversion tables Sex
Discussion groups Space
Drugs Sports, recreations, games, etc.
Economy Subtitlers' and Translators' organisations
EU & UN Terminology
Food and drinks Texts, lyrics
Geography, geology, maps, climate Translation, CAT, MT
Linguistics Varia
Militaria and weapons
Movies, TV, etc Amusements and timewasters




You can of course always search directly for e.g. a song text or the title of some director's film that you cannot hear clearly from the sound of the video cassette. But you run the risk of having to look through hundreds of the possible links that your search engine provides. Therefore I have tried to select sites that will lead you faster to the goal.

If you find a link that is not working, if you happen to know of better sources than mine or can add sites, I would be happy to get that information. I can be joined at .

When selecting the sites, I have tried to avoid those that are filled with publicity and those that leave you in a dead end when you try to leave them. Links to lots of sources of all kinds. General and multilingual resources.  Open Directory is a good place to start searches, since you can continue the search on many different search engines without having to retype anything.  A searchable collection of definitions of all kinds.  A translator's list of over 2200 links to practically everything.  Translation Links - 5500 of them.  Links for translators. Rich, especially for German and Dutch.



For Mac users:  and  provide e.g. Webster's Revised version (1913)and several reference works



Acronyms, Abbreviations,  Trademarks  The International Trademark Assoc. INTA’s useful list of over 3000 trademarks, principally American. For correct spelling and explanation of content.  Food manufacturer and brand name search.  Non-existing brands used in artistic or entertainment productions.  Explanation for more than 200 000 acronyms.  Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms, from the generic to the specific. Many useful links.  Abbreviations and Acronyms found in the Marine and Maritime World ashore and at sea.



Animals, Plants, Nature  The All Species search engine has indexed more than 873,000 species, 120,336 common names, and 130,504 synonyms from 12 contributing databases. (Under construction.)  Species 2000 has the objective of enumerating all organisms (animals, plants, fungi and microbes).  Animal Word List in English, Swedish, French or Latin.  Links to biology glossaries.  Links to biological sites.  European bird names in Latin, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish and Russian. 804 records.  Avibase - birds of the world, 1.4 million records, 10,000 species, distribution information, taxonomy, synonyms in eight languages.   Babel Bird (Bird Name Translator)  Multilingual Bird Search Engine (9716 species)  Amphibian biology and conservation. Mirrors:,,,  28100 species, 78300 synonyms , 152900 common names, 35300 pictures.  Fish names in Latin, English, German, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish (searchable)  Sea animals and fish in ten languages.  Links to sites with vernacular/common names of animals and plants.  Index to Organism Names of animals, algae, bacteria, fungi and mosses.  National Center for Biotechnology Information  Nomenclatural Glossary for Zoology.  Directory and search engine of insect-related resources on the Internet.  Butterfly names in English with Latin name.  Flies, gnats, maggots, midges, mosquitoes, keds, bots, etc.  The World Spider Catalog.  Smithsonian Institute's database library.  National Biological Information Infrastructure: Botany: General reference sources. Especially US.   Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database.  Garden and pot plants.  Cultivated plants.  Common and botanic names of trees, with variants, in many languages.  Terminology concerning water related issues. Also available in German, French, Spanish and Dutch.




Arts  Definitions for more than 3,600 terms from art / visual culture, along with thousands of images, quotations and cross-references  Links to practically everything in the field.  Multilingual and multimedia encyclopaedia on architecture, town planning and housing.  The Classical Music Pages.

Libretti and song texts, see Texts.


Biography  Internet Public Library's lists of links to biographical sites.  Biographical dictionary with 28 000 names, searchable by birth or death years,  professions, works, achievements and other keywords.  Rich collection of biographies of dead persons, taken from the Internet.  Click on "Find". 6000 writers, 17,500 works and 1600 topics.  500 biographies of the most important writers.  Authors' pseudonyms.



Comics  2000 fan pages on a great number of comic books.  A thousand fan pages on comic strips. Disney comics characters including animations. With , a searchable database of translations of the names in many languages.  Who's who in Ducksburg.  Tintin in 28 languages with names of the principal characters.




Communications, cars, trains, air, ships...  Automotive glossary.  Classic cars - not only UK. Many links.  Hot rods, street rods, classic cars slang.  Technical and terminology Pages, Stories, Steam Links, Links to link lists.  Steam locomotive terminology.   US Railroad Terms and Slang.  Railways in general and the UK in particular.  Air Traffic Management Glossary of Terms.  Boating Basics Glossary of Terms.  Glossary of Nautical Terms (cirka 1814).  Maritime History Virtual Archives.  Maritime Etymology Dictionaries in English, Dutch, French, German, Spanish and Swedish.  Abbreviations, Truncations, Shortenings, Initialisms, Contractions and Acronyms found in the Marine and Maritime World ashore and at sea.  Glossaries of Maritime Law: Abbreviations, Definitions, Terms, Links. Searchable. 



Computers and Internet  Online dictionary and search engine for computer and Internet technology definitions



Conversion tables  Conversion tables of all kinds of units.  Easy to use, but not as complete as the above.  Universal Currency Converter.  A dictionary of units of measurement around the world and appropriate conversion factors.


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Discussion groups, etc.                    Discussion group for translators.  Addresses of all of Google’s discussion groups.  Internet Frequently Asked Questions archive. About most everything. Give it some time, and you’ll find…  American Dialect Society's discussion group, ADS-L. You have to become a member (free, go to ADS-L e-mail List) and can then ask specialists for advice on e.g. difficult slang words. They usually answer very soon.  Join by sending a message to:  Join by message to:  Join by sending a message to:  Swedish subtitlers. Join by sending a message to:  TRAG (TRAducción de Guiones de películas) Suscribir: 


Drugs  US Office of National Drug Control.  Database with over 2,300 street terms.  The Indiana Prevention Resource Center on-line dictionary contains more than 3,800 street drug slang terms.



Economy  NY Times' Glossary of Financial and Business Terms.  Stiglitz's Glossary of Economic Terms.  MoneyWords for Technology Professionals.  American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Glossary of Terms, Acronyms, and Abbreviations.  Glossary with over 5000 financial terms in English, German, French and Italian.



EU & UN  The European Union on-line. Well-structured information in 20 languages.  UN's home page. Lots of info in many languages.


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Food and drinks  Food and Nutrition Information Center. Good and mainly reliable links.  Food manufacturer and brand name search.  Many links, but of varying value.  Food-terms dictionary with translations in several languages (English, Danish, Dutch, French and German). Under construction – you can contribute.  Spanish food dictionary.  Cooking information center.  Cooking basics terminology and recipe collection - searchable.  Cookware, etc. Old-time diner slang.  More diner slang – more modern.  Very comprehensive.  Many links, but of varying quality.  Epicurious Wine Dictionary.  "The World Liquor Wine & Beer Center". Searchable.


Geography, Geology, Maps  Online World Atlas.  Type an address practically anywhere in the world to get a detailed map.  Good for route planning.  Maps of Cities of the World.  Accepts "fuzzy search" both for cities and for street names.  Maps of US and Canada. Allows zooming up to street level.  European place names in several languages.  US place names.  The Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names is a  vocabulary of over 1,000,000 geographic names, vernacular and historical, coordinates, and place types.  List of the world's countries, their inhabitants and currencies.  CIA's World Factbook contains basic facts on all countries. Frequently updated.  Geographic Information Society's dictionary.  Population data and related statistics. Links to geographical resources.  GeoMan's Glossary of Earth Science Terms.  Basically Scandinavian geology, but also many links.  Geologic time frames from the Precambrian period to today and an introduction to Geology.  Terminology concerning water related issues. Also available in German, French, Spanish and Dutch.  Hopkins glossary of weather terms.  US weather for any given city and date.  ESPERE climate encyclopedia. Currently being translated into French, German, Polish, Hungarian and Norwegian, but far from finished.  Flags of all countries.



Linguistics  Ex Human-Language Page, with over 2000 links for the translator.  Helsinki University's CAT (Computer Assisted Translation) page with many useful links.  or  The Linguist List. Information on language and language analysis, searchable archives of over 100 other linguistic mailing lists.  Languages of the World  English usage. Searchable. FAQs, links and UCLE Corner (UK.culture.language.english)


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Medicine  Access to over 11 million MEDLINE citations back to the mid-1960's and additional life science journals. Links to many full text articles and other resources. MedWeb has over 7000 links. Merck Medicus. Many links and resources, but some require professional registration.  Surgical/Medical/New Terms glossary. New Drugs/Equipment/Procedures. Medical terminology       - " -  Dorland's Medical Dictionary.  Diseases, Disorders and Related Topics and many links.  Extensive information on diseases, symptoms, etc. Focuses on family and community health.  WHO links to their sites, very informative.  Drug names (even misspells), keywords, pill id, imprint codes, NDC codes and medical terminology.  A dictionary of medical eponyms.



Militaria & Weapons  “Jane’s – the ultimate source for defence, aerospace and transportation information”.  Search over 2 million defence related documents with Jane's Defence Discovery.  Links to military rank insignia of the world.  US Army's insignia through history and up to date.  US Army War College's collection of links.  Air Operational brevity words. Military jargon.  US  Dept. of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.  1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP) Very comprehensive  British naval history WW1-Falklands War  Old Contemptible’s website is dedicated to the conflict of 1914-18.  Old Contemptible's rich list of links.  Trenches on the Web 1914-18.  U.S. Army Military History Institute. Many links.  U.S naval history-related web sites and links to history of other military branches.  UK Navy today.  UK Navy slang.  DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, Jargon and Slang links.  American military equipment.  Russian military equipment.  Lots of facts, seen from the German angle.  German Army unit terminology.  Gives a good short introduction to firearms and to their impact on the human body. The images are not for the faint of heart.  Reme Museum Weapons Collection. Searchable. Images of weapons.  Links to sellers of all kinds of firearms, many with catalogues.  Firearms Glossary of the National Rifle Association of America.  Glossary of spy terms.  A very rich guide to US intelligence and security agencies.


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Movies, TV, etc.  “The world's largest and most complete database of movie information,” especially Anglo-American. Use IMDb-Browse button.  A directory of some useful websites, providing news, information, shopping, movies, TV, music, arts…  Among other things biographies of movie, TV, performing arts and entertainment personalities.  Film title and people finder.  Selected movie sites on the web.  Scripts of classic and popular films and TV programmes.  Movie script database.  2000 movie scripts.  Specializing in Classic Hollywood/American Films.  The 70's Movies Rewind - info, pictures, trivia, soundtracks and links.  The 80's Movies Rewind.  Entertainment Weekly’s home page, with searchable archives since 1994.  Variety’s home page, with searchable archives since 1914, but you pay to get more than a summary of the articles.  1,100+ complete guides covering current TV shows and many classics. 2,300+ guides that are "partially complete".  Episode lists for over 2500 TV shows, with titles and airdates. For many, a detailed episode guide with guest stars and plot summaries.  On-line subject guide that quickly finds information about the Characters, Places & Things and Language.  In French only.  Association Française de Recherche sur l’histoire du Cinéma has many valuable links. In French and English.  Online movie terms dictionary. Under construction. 21 languages.  A detailed reference source for a wide variety of movie and film-related terms.



Newspapers, reviews, etc., sometimes with archives.  For journalists. Its Links to the News compiles valuable Web resources on current and previous news topics.  Newspapers USA and worldwide  International Herald Tribune  New York Times  The Times  The Guardian  Le Monde  Libération  Die Welt  Die Zeit  Corriere della Sera  La Repubblica  El Mundo  La Nacion  News pages of the ABC  News pages of the BBC  The European Union's TV news agency Europe by Satellite (EbS) covers EU affairs for TV professionals. 


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Police, law, etc.  Web-Based Crime Writing Resources. A wealth of references and links with information on police and police procedure, investigative techniques, extra-legal activities, courts and the law, guns, and other crime and forensic links.  Radio Codes & Signals.  New York police 10-codes.  New York Fire Dept 10-codes and abbreviations.  More US 10-codes.  UK CB and police 10-codes; ham radio and civilian aircraft codes and jargon.  US West Coast police jargon.  Links to over 6000 US law enforcement related websites.  CIA's information site.  Uneven but some good information on police rank insignia and titles.  The real life dictionary of the (US) law.”  Definitions and explanations of legal terms.  Legal dictionary. Access to European Union law and public documents. Available in 23 languages.  60 justice & law glossaries and dictionaries.  U.S. Courts.  Links to UK and international law sites.  Social Science Information Gateway's law links.



Quotations, etc.  Links to English language quotation sites.  Quotation resources on the Net  Several quotation dictionaries.  The Columbia World of 65 000 quotations.  Simpson's Contemporary Quotes 1950-1988.  Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. The Phrase Finder - meanings and origins of phrases and sayings.  John Bartlett's 1500 Shakespeare quotations.

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Rap, rasta, hiphop, graffiti  International Dictionary of Aerosol Art = Graffiti  Hiphop, Ebonics, etc.  HipHop Lyrics Archive.  Rap Dictionary. How to translate e.g. “I’m Audi 5000”.  Rap dictionary. 



Reference works, encyclopaedias, etc.  Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.  Facts-at-a-Glance.  Reference Tools and Custom Searches  Ready Reference list.  The Internet Public Library.  A growing multi-language encyclopedia, managed by volunteers. 32 languages with more than 5000 articles (English has over 500 000), and many smaller, in all 199.  "All the information you need".  English, Medical, Legal, and Computer Dictionaries, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Literature Reference Library, and Search Engine  Encyclopedia with 52,000 entries plus a North America gazetteer with 50,000 entries. Includes country studies and facts.  Oxford Paperback Encyclopaedia's free reference site.  iTools - quick access to Internet tools.  The Probert Encyclopaedia complements other encyclopaedias. Fully searchable.  The American Constitution Society’s rich reference pages are useful.  Primary source materials relating to the history and culture of the U.S. 7 million digital items from more than 100 historical collections.  12 000 public records databases in the US and Canada.  English usage. Searchable. FAQs, links and UCLE Corner (UK.culture.language.english).  Links to library catalogues on-line all over the world.  Gabriel, the information service for the National Libraries of Europe.  Site de l’Encyclopedie Quid.



Religion, hymns, religious texts, myths  Encyclopedia Mythica. Myths and folklore.  The Bible Gateway, with Bible texts in over 35 languages and with a browser for looking up words or phrases.  Complete concordance for many English versions.  Liturgy resources (Roman Catholic and Orthodox) and much more. and  give the text of the Roman Catholic Mass in several languages.  The Book of Common Prayer, several versions.  1678 topics / 4793 saints.  The Pater Noster in 1207 languages and dialects.  A Glossary of Basic Jewish Terms and Concepts.  Text and browser.


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Sex  Sex Therapy Online's rather chaste dictionary.  Society for Human Sexuality. Searchable.  The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex has a resource links list.  Sexual terms, the F-word, thesaurus, synonyms, quotations.  Very comprehensive sex dictionary - in German.  Gay slang.  Flamespeak - a term to describe lingo used by LBGT people (lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgendered).  The Deviants' Dictionary  Everything about masturbation, including a dictionary of synonyms.


Space  NASA's home page.  Aerospace dictionary  History and news of astronautics in the USSR and Russia.



Sports, recreation, games, etc.  134 sports glossaries in several languages, from archery to XC skiing.  Rules of practically every sport or game.  American football glossary (with official's hand signals).  Baseball basics.  Major League Baseball's official home page with links.  Basketball glossary.  Bicycle glossary.  Formula 1 car racing, with translations into many languages.  Golf glossary and basics  Ice hockey glossary.  Martial Arts dictionary, equipment, etc.  Snowboard dictionary.  Soccer glossary. Soccer glossary.  Dictionary of Sports and Gambling.  History, links and information about traditional games from around the world  Incredibly detailed site for card and tile games from all parts of the world.  Rules, dictionary, etc.  Rules, terms, articles, etc.



Subtitlers' and Translators' organisations  Links to translators' organisations.  ESIST - European Association for Studies in Screen Translation.  European Society for Translation Studies.  International Federation of Translators.  Audio-Visual Translators' union. A network in the field of media translation and information on agreements, contracts, working conditions and prices.  AIDAC - Italian Dubbers' Union.  New e-zine on screen translation. In English.  Forum for Screen Translators - in Danish.  Norwegian Union of Screen Translators. Page also in English and Spanish.  Swedish media translators' home page. In Swedish.  European Audiovisual Observatory.  European Union On-Line.


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Terminology                  European Terminology Database.  United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database.  Terminology Forum.  Computer and Internet technology.  Aerospace dictionary.  Book & library terms.  Online movie terms dictionary in several languages.  Centre de recherche en terminologie.



Texts                          Perseus is an evolving digital library specialized in Greek and Latin classics and Archaeology (original texts and English translations)  Labyrinth Latin Bookcase. Classical and Mediaeval texts with translations.  Project Gutenberg. World literature classics that can be downloaded free of charges.  On-line archive of tens of thousands of SGML and XML-encoded electronic texts.  Oxford Text Archive. More than 2500 resources in over 25 different languages.  Over 15 000 e-books.  More than 2,000 books, stories, poems, plays, and religious and historical documents.  The 1914 Oxford edition of the Complete Works of William Shakespeare.  Texts in German.  Progetto Manuzio – Texts in Italian.  In French: 80000 documents numérisés.  Project Runeberg. Older Scandinavian literature.  Scripts of classic and popular films and TV programmes.  Movie script database.  2000 movie scripts.  Lied and song texts archive.  Links to song lyrics, libretti, etc.  OperaGlass opera index with libretti and synopses.  Song text archive.  Artists and song texts.  Artist, lyrics and album indexes..  German folk songs and hymns.

(Many other specialized archives exist. Search for “Lyrics archive”, or search through Google for some “words of your problem text” within quotation marks.)  Nursery rhymes  Mother Goose Rhymes


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Translation, CAT, MT  Helsinki University's CAT (Computer Assisted Translation) page with many useful links.  The same goes for this excellent page, managed by a translator, Cecilia Falk.  Rich list of good translator's resources links.  A translator's links.  Peter Sandrini's rich list of resources for translators and interpreters. Found under -->Links -->Translation  Translation, interpretation and language links.  More links.  Miscellaneous Translators’ Resources.  A Belgian site for screen translation.  On-line translation aids that the European Commission's Translation Service uses in its day-to-day work.  Links to valuable resources for translators.  The Translator's Home Companion.  Glossary of Translation and Interpreting Terminology. With German translation.  Not up to date, but useful resource links and tips.  Translation Journal. With lots of links.  Journal of Specialised Translation.  Many links to translation and subtitling resources.  "The King of Closed Captions".  Compact online subtitling course.



Varia  For kids, but often useful.  A good source for facts.  Practically everything about analog TV systems. Different time scales explained.  American LASS (Local Area Signalling Services) codes to access special features of the telephone system.  Committee of Concerned Journalists' tools and resources.  A comprehensive compendium of hacker slang illuminating many aspects of hackish tradition, folklore, and humor.  An encyclopedia of  non-computer role-playing games.  Links for over 500 free role-playing games (RPG's).  A collection of RPG-related links, also zines, fantasy, including Tolkien, etc. Plus RPG:s in other languages.



Amusements and timewasters for tired translators/subtitlers  The wonderful Engrish subtitles featured in an Asian bootleg DVD of Lord of The Rings.  The Klingon Language Institute. If you feel like learning another language.  Urban Legends Reference Pages.  A Collection of Word Oddities and Trivia.  “America’s finest news source”.  1000+ pages on the story of English. You never know what might turn up!  If you know a word that should be in the dictionary but isn't, submit it.  Googlewhacking. Quite addictive.



Updated 22.4.2010       <----Home             Contents